Πέμπτη, Αυγούστου 09, 2018

Ένας θησαυρός αποκαλύφθηκε στην Πατριαρχική Βιβλιοθήκη Αλεξανδρείας


Tην 7η Αυγούστου ε.έ., η ΑΘΜ ο Πάπας και Πατριάρχης Αλεξανδρείας και πάσης Αφρικής κ.κ. Θεόδωρος Β΄, υποδέχθηκε στην Αίθουσα Συσκέψεων του Πατριαρχικού Μεγάρου, στην Αλεξάνδρεια, τους εκπροσώπους του Τμήματος Συντήρησης και Αποκατάστασης Χειρογράφων της Bibliotheca Alexandrina…

προκειμένου να επιστρέψουν την 10η δόση, οκτώ αποκαταστημένων χειρογράφων της Πατριαρχικής Βιβλιοθήκης, τα οποία συντηρήθηκαν και ψηφιοποιήθηκαν με την ευγενική χορηγία του Ιδρύματος «Α.Γ. ΛΕΒΕΝΤΗ» της Κύπρου.
Πρόκειται για βιβλία χρονολογούμενα από τον 15ο αιώνα, μεταξύ αυτών χειρόγραφη ενυπόγραφη «Δογματική», έργο του Αγίου Μελετίου του Πηγά (1468) και σπάνιο Ευαγγελιστάριο στην Αραβική γλώσσα (1473), επί εποχής Μαμελούκων.
Κατά την διάρκεια της παράδοσης, ο Μακαριώτατος Πατριάρχης έμεινε έκπληκτος, όταν οι ειδικοί επιστήμονες ανακοίνωσαν πως εντός της στάχωσης χειρογράφου, αποκαλύφθηκε ενσωματωμένη Ποιμαντική Εγκύκλιος υπογεγραμμένη από τον Οικουμενικό Πατριάρχη Κωνσταντινουπόλεως Ιερεμία Β΄, τον επιλεγόμενο Τρανό.
Ο Μακαριώτατος εξήρε το έργο συντήρησης, αποκατάστασης και ψηφιοποίησης των χειρογράφων της Πατριαρχικής Βιβλιοθήκης που συντελείται από τη Βιβλιοθήκη της Αλεξάνδρειας, ευχαρίστησε το Ίδρυμα «Α.Γ. Λεβέντη» για την συνεισφορά του, σημειώνοντας πως η συνεργασία ανάμεσα στη Πατριαρχική Βιβλιοθήκη Αλεξανδρείας και τη Βιβλιοθήκη της Αλεξάνδρειας, αποφέρει γόνιμα αποτελέσματα που διαδραματίζουν καθοριστικό ρόλο στη διατήρηση της πολιτιστικής μας κληρονομιάς.
Πηγή: www.vimaorthodoxias.gr

Τετάρτη, Αυγούστου 08, 2018

Το Ινστιτούτο Νευρολογίας και Γενετικής Κύπρου (ΙΝΓΚ) υιοθετεί την πολιτική για τη ανοικτή πρόσβαση σε επιστημονικά άρθρα και δεδομένα






Όπως αναφέρεται σε σχετική ανακοίνωση,  η απόφαση λήφθηκε από το  Επιστημονικό Συμβούλιο του ΙΝΓΚ, το οποίο έχει επικυρώσει την πολιτική στην τελευταία του συνεδρία.
Η πολιτική του ΙΝΓΚ για την ανοικτή πρόσβαση σε επιστημονικά άρθρα και δεδομένα, προστίθεται, είναι εναρμονισμένη με την ισχύουσα Εθνική Πολιτική Ανοικτής Πρόσβασης στην Επιστημονική Πληροφόρηση στην Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία και τις τρέχουσες πρόνοιες και καλές πρακτικές της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.
Η πολιτική αυτή έχει ως στόχο την άμεση διάχυση των ερευνητικών αποτελεσμάτων και δεδομένων στον ευρύτερο επιστημονικό κύκλο ώστε να επισπεύδεται η έρευνα και η καινοτομία χωρίς τους φραγμούς προσβασιμότητας σε ερευνητικά αποτελέσματα και συμπεράσματα.

Πηγή: www.sigmalive.com 

Οι ψευδείς ειδήσεις διαδίδονται 6 φορές γρηγορότερα από τις πραγματικές



Οι ψευδείς ειδήσεις έχουν κατά 70% περισσότερες πιθανότητες να διαδοθούν από τις πραγματικές και αυτό συμβαίνει 6 φορές γρηγορότερα, κατέληξαν οι επιστήμονες.
Το ψέμα εξαπλώνεται επίσης ταχύτερα από την αλήθεια και διαδίδεται σημαντικά μακρύτερα και ευρύτερα σε όλες τις κατηγορίες πληροφοριών. Τα αποτελέσματα ήταν εντονότερα κατα τρεις φορές για τις ψευδείς ειδήσεις με θέμα την πολιτική, παρά για τις ψεύτικες πληροφορίες σχετικά με την τρομοκρατία, τις φυσικές καταστροφές, την επιστήμη, τους αστικούς θρύλους ή τις οικονομικές πληροφορίες.
Η ψυχολογική αιτία γι’ αυτό είναι ότι οι ψευδείς ειδήσεις είναι πρωτότυπες και στους ανθρώπους αρέσει να διαδίδουν σε άλλους ασυνήθιστες ιστορίες, χωρίς να τους ενδιαφέρει αν είναι αληθινές. Οι ψευδείς ειδήσεις ενισχύουν τα αισθήματα φόβου, αηδίας και έκπληξης, ενώ οι αληθινές ειδήσεις είναι συνήθως βαρετές και συνηθισμένες.
Επιπλέον, ανακάλυψαν πως η εξάπλωση της ψευδούς πληροφορίας δεν οφείλεται τόσο στα bots (προγράμματα που εκτελούν αυτοματοποιημένες εργασίες μέσω του διαδικτύου), που υπολογίζονται σε 48 εκατομμύρια στο titter και 60 εκατ. στο facebook, αλλά στους χρήστες γιατί έχουν την τάση να κοινοποιούν ανακριβείς ειδήσεις, για τους λόγους που ήδη αναφέρθηκαν.

Εδώ μπορείτε να διαβάσετε την έρευνα science.sciencemag.org,
και εδώ ένας χρήσιμος οδηγός συχνών ερωτήσεων από το MIT media.mit.edu

Πηγή: ΑΠΕ – ΜΠΕ

People are bad at spotting fake news. Can computer programs do better?


There’s just too much misinformation online for human fact-checkers to catch it all


BY 

Scrolling through a news feed often feels like playing Two Truths and a Lie.
Some falsehoods are easy to spot. Like reports that First Lady Melania Trump wanted an exorcist to cleanse the White House of Obama-era demons, or that an Ohio school principal was arrested for defecating in front of a student assembly. In other cases, fiction blends a little too well with fact. Was CNN really raided by the Federal Communications Commission? Did cops actually uncover a meth lab inside an Alabama Walmart? No and no. But anyone scrolling through a slew of stories could easily be fooled.
We live in a golden age of misinformation. On Twitter, falsehoods spread further and faster than the truth (SN: 3/31/18, p. 14). In the run-up to the 2016 U.S. presidential election, the most popular bogus articles got more Facebook shares, reactions and comments than the top real news, according to a BuzzFeed News analysis.
Before the internet, “you could not have a person sitting in an attic and generating conspiracy theories at a mass scale,” says Luca de Alfaro, a computer scientist at the University of California, Santa Cruz. But with today’s social media, peddling lies is all too easy — whether those lies come from outfits like Disinfomedia, a company that has owned several false news websites, or a scrum of teenagers in Macedonia who raked in the cash by writing popular fake news during the 2016 election.
Most internet users probably aren’t intentionally broadcasting bunk. Information overload and the average Web surfer’s limited attention span aren’t exactly conducive to fact-checking vigilance. Confirmation bias feeds in as well. “When you’re dealing with unfiltered information, it’s likely that people will choose something that conforms to their own thinking, even if that information is false,” says Fabiana Zollo, a computer scientist at Ca’ Foscari University of  Venice in Italy who studies how information circulates on social networks.
Intentional or not, sharing misinformation can have serious consequences. Fake news doesn’t just threaten the integrity of elections and erode public trust in real news. It threatens lives. False rumors that spread on WhatsApp, a smartphone messaging system, for instance, incited lynchings in India this year that left more than a dozen people dead.
To help sort fake news from truth, programmers are building automated systems that judge the veracity of online stories. A computer program might consider certain characteristics of an article or the reception an article gets on social media. Computers that recognize certain warning signs could alert human fact-checkers, who would do the final verification.
Automatic lie-finding tools are “still in their infancy,” says computer scientist Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia of Indiana University Bloomington. Researchers are exploring which factors most reliably peg fake news. Unfortunately, they have no agreed-upon set of true and false stories to use for testing their tactics. Some programmers rely on established media outlets or state press agencies to determine which stories are true or not, while others draw from lists of reported fake news on social media. So research in this area is something of a free-for-all.
But teams around the world are forging ahead because the internet is a fire hose of information, and asking human fact-checkers to keep up is like aiming that hose at a Brita filter. “It’s sort of mind-numbing,” says Alex Kasprak, a science writer at Snopes, the oldest and largest online fact-checking site, “just the volume of really shoddy stuff that’s out there.”

Source: www.sciencenews.org

Τρίτη, Αυγούστου 07, 2018

Ancient Roman Library Discovered Beneath German City


By 

Beneath the soil in Cologne, Germany, lies a bibliophile's dream: an ancient Roman library that once held up to 20,000 scrolls, according to news reports.
Archaeologists discovered the epic structure in 2017 while they were excavating the grounds of a Protestant church to build a new community center. Considering Cologne is one of Germany's oldest cities, founded in A.D. 50, it's no surprise that it still has structures dating back to Roman times.
However, archaeologists didn't figure out that the structure was a library until they found mysterious holes in the walls, each measuring about 31 inches by 20 inches (80 by 50 centimeters), The Guardian reported.
The niches in the wall were likely "cupboards for the scrolls," Dirk Schmitz, an archaeologist at the Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne, told The Guardian. "They are very particular to libraries — you can see the same ones in the library at Ephesus [in Turkey]." [Photos: Centuries of History Revealed Beneath Roman Ruins]
While it's anyone's guess as to how many scrolls the library once housed, it's fair to say the number would have been "quite huge — maybe 20,000," Schmitz said. He noted that the newfound library is slightly smaller than the Celsus Library in Ephesus, which was built in A.D. 117. Even so, its discovery is "really incredible — a spectacular find," Schmitz said.

"[It] is, at a minimum, the earliest library in Germany, and perhaps in the northwest Roman provinces," he said. "Perhaps there are a lot of Roman towns that have libraries, but they haven't been excavated. If we had just found the foundations, we wouldn't have known it was a library. It was because it had walls, with the niches, that we could tell."


The ancient Romans chose a good spot for the building, he noted.
"It is in the middle of Cologne, in the marketplace, or forum: the public space in the city center," Schmitz said. "It is built of very strong materials, and such buildings, because they are so huge, were public."
During its heyday, the library was probably two stories tall and measured about 65 feet by 30 feet (20 by 9 meters), and an extension was added later, Cologne historic preservation official Marcus Trier told Deutsche Welle (DW), a German news outlet. This extension was likely an alcove where a statue of Minerva, the Roman goddess counterpart to Greece's Athena, once stood, Schmitz told The Art Newspaper.
The ancient library's remains will be integrated into the new church community center, giving access to visitors and future archaeologists, DW reported.
Source: www.livescience.com

Δευτέρα, Αυγούστου 06, 2018

Libraries change lives. They should be protected at all costs


Nikesh Shukla



Banksy is paying for libraries to be kept open in Bristol, but we should be funding this invaluable resource ourselves

Two things really annoyed me recently: 1) Banksy paid for Bristol libraries facing closure to be kept open and 2) some economics professor wrote a piece for Forbes magazine about how Amazonshould replace libraries with physical stores.

To clarify: I’m not annoyed at Banksy. It’s incredibly generous of the artist to continue to support local projects, initiatives and institutions in his home city despite being one of the most famous artists in the world. I really don’t think it’s Banksy’s responsibility, though. Banksy should not be putting his hand in his pocket to save libraries. No way.
Because of government cuts to local funding, councils are under immense pressure to save on spending. And there are core services that they need to provide. However, I believe that a library is a core service and should be protected at all costs.
Doughters got their library cards pretty much as soon as their births were registered. We visited rhyme time sessions, practised colouring in on various Gruffalo and Maisy activity sheets, sat on bean bags and read together on rainy days, and on sunny days when it was the coolest building around and we just needed to leave the house. The library provided us with a place to go.Libraries change lives. They are more than just big rooms with stacks of dusty books and a librarian shushing people. (I have never been shushed in a library. I have no idea where this stereotype came from.) Libraries provide so much to communities, from information and support, to free access to the internet, to entire worlds and universes contained in said dusty books. They are communal spaces and offer a basic level of support, community and knowledge that we should all have access to.
The library has given my daughters agency in what they read. They both get to scan the shelves, pick up any book they want, flick through it and ask to get it. Sometimes, we get bangers. Sometimes we get so-so books. We talk about the books and discuss what we liked and didn’t like. And when we return the books, we get to look for the things they’re both looking for.
I remember having the absolute pick of the library. I’ve written about how finding and devouring The Buddha of Suburbia changed my life. I remember also finding Adrian Mole, and guffawing in the corner, reading another 10 pages every time we came to the library. I remember picking up Crime and Punishment, because it had been mentioned in a Paul Zindel book I was too young to read, and taking it to the counter. I was about 10 or 11. The librarian must have laughed at this precocious, weird kid insisting that the thing they most wanted to read was not a Star Wars tie-in, or a comic, or Adrian Mole, but this Russian classic about guilt and existentialism (or at least I think that’s what it was about. I didn’t get very far. Returned it the next week. Got something else out. Probably another Paul Zindel teen drama).
Obviously, there are some places where cuts will mean libraries have shut and the nearest one isn’t hugely accessible. And I find that such a shame. Because I truly believe that access to a library is a basic right we should all have. And I would find it grotesque if libraries were replaced with a physical Amazon store. (Aside: maybe if Amazon paid fair taxes, libraries would be better funded and not at threat of closure.) And I also find it sad that the burden of saving the libraries of Bristol has fallen on a private individual, when it is down to our government (local/national/whoever) to provide us with access to such spaces.
Whether you use your library or not, the very fact it is there sends a message out to our communities. It says, this belongs to you. It is yours. Come in. Use it. Read. Apply for jobs. Have a cup of tea in one of the many support groups. Steal a nap at the back. This is your space. 
Source: www.theguardian.com

A 13th-century Bible returns to Canterbury Cathedral library, 500 years after it was lost

The illuminated volume disappeared when Henry VIII broke up the Benedictine community there.

A rare illuminated 13th-century Bible is back on the shelf of the library of the Canterbury Cathedral, after it disappeared from the cathedral’s monastic book collection almost 500 years ago.
The Lyghfield bible, named after the the 16th-century monk who once owned it, has been unaccounted for since Henry VIII dissolved the Benedictine monastery — and its valuable collection of books — in 1540.
The 690-page pocket-sized Bible is one of only 30 volumes that survived the breakup of the monastery, in which about 30,000 books were destroyed or taken apart for the reuse of their materials, according to a press release from Canterbury Cathedral.
The cathedral plans to display the book in a new exhibition area, according to The Guardian, which noted that its small size may have saved it from being similarly cannibalized.

LYGHFIELD BIBLE,CANTERBURY
Via Cantebury Cathedral

The Bible was purchased at a private auction for £100,000 ($130,000), thanks to a grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund (NHMF).
“We are very grateful to the support from funders. It is of the utmost significance to us to have here in our collections a copy of the core Christian text which was owned by one of the last monks of the medieval monastic community. The Bible bears witness to the upheavals of the Reformation, a time which defined what the Cathedral is today, and will have a key role in telling visitors our story,” said Canterbury Cathedral head of archives and library, Cressida Williams.
Sir Peter Luff, chairman of the NHMF, noted that when approached the trustees of the foundation agreed to seize that the opportunity to acquire the Bible for the cathedral’s collection.
“Not only an incredibly rare book directly linked to one the most turbulent periods of British history, the Lyghfield Bible is also exquisitely beautiful,” he said.

Source: aleteia.org

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